black hole spacetimes | vanishing angular momentum | positive angular momentum |
---|---|---|
vanishing charge | Schwarzschild spacetime | Kerr spacetime |
positive charge | Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime | Kerr-Newman spacetime |
The standard model (in theoretical physics) for the observable universe on the largest length scales of cosmology:
it is an inflationary FRW spacetime with cosmological constant (“dark energy”) and cold dark matter. The technical term for this is the $\Lambda$ CDM concordance model (where “$\Lambda$” is the standard symbol for the cosmological constant and “CDM” is for “cold dark matter”).
The current model assumes that the energy density of the observable universe consists of
26.8% dark matter
68.3% dark energy.
(e.g. Einasto 09, fig 17, here)
Computer simulation of cosmic structure formation on scales larger than that of galaxies had always shown very good agreement of the $\Lambda CDM$ standard model of cosmology and observation.
There used to be various discrepancies of cold dark matter-models on the scale of galaxies
But recent analysis seems to show that more fine-grained analysis shows that cold dark matter-models match all of these observations well. See behind the above links for more.
The renormalization freedom in perturbative quantization of gravity (perturbative quantum gravity) induces freedom in the choice of vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor and hence in the cosmological constant.
For review see Hack 15, section 3.2.1
For more see at cosmological constant here.
standard model of particle physics and cosmology
theory: | Einstein- | Yang-Mills- | Dirac- | Higgs |
---|---|---|---|---|
gravity | electroweak and strong nuclear force | fermionic matter | scalar field | |
field content: | vielbein field $e$ | principal connection $\nabla$ | spinor $\psi$ | scalar field $H$ |
Lagrangian: | scalar curvature density | field strength squared | Dirac operator component density | field strength squared + potential density |
$L =$ | $R(e) vol(e) +$ | $\langle F_\nabla \wedge \star_e F_\nabla\rangle +$ | $(\psi , D_{(e,\nabla)} \psi) vol(e) +$ | $\nabla \bar H \wedge \star_e \nabla H + \left(\lambda {\vert H\vert}^4 - \mu^2 {\vert H\vert}^2 \right) vol(e)$ |
Lecture notes include
Review:
Jorge L. Cervantes-Cota, George Smoot, Cosmology today – A brief review (2011)(arXiv:1107.1789)
Viatcheslav Mukhanov, Quantum Universe, Phys.Usp. 59 (2016) no.10, 1021-1027 (spire:1507528, doi:10.3367/UFNe.2016.07.037857, video recording)
In March 2013, following an accurate processing of available measurement data, the Planck Scientific Collaboration published the highest-resolution photograph ever of the early Universe when it was only a few hundred thousand years old. The photograph showed galactic seeds in sufficient detail to test some nontrivial theoretical predictions made more than thirty years ago. Most amazing was that all predictions were confirmed to be remarkably accurate. With no exaggeration, we may consider it established experimentally that quantum physics, which is normally assumed to be relevant on the atomic and subatomic scale, also works on the scale of the entire Universe, determining its structure with all its galaxies, stars, and planets.
A discussion of open problems is in
Benoit Famaey, Stacy McGaugh, Challenges for Lambda-CDM and MOND (arXiv:1301.0623)
Thomas Buchert, Alan A. Coley, Hagen Kleinert, Boudewijn F. Roukema, David L. Wiltshire, Observational Challenges for the Standard FLRW Model, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 25, 1630007 (2016) (arXiv:1512.03313)
See also
Wikipedia, Lambda-CDM model
Jaan Einasto, Dark matter (arXiv:0901.0632) 2009
Possible tensions in the model, regarding determination of the Hubble constant in the early and late universe, apparently observed by various groups, since the late 2010s:
review:
Indication that the tension is not in the data but in systematic errors:
Discussion in the rigorous context ofAQFT on curved spacetimes includes
Klaus Fredenhagen, Thomas-Paul Hack, Quantum field theory on curved spacetime and the standard cosmological model (arXiv:1308.6773)
Thomas-Paul Hack, The Lambda CDM-model in quantum field theory on curved spacetime and Dark Radiation (arXiv:1306.3074)
For review see