graded modality



Classic modalities are defined in absolute terms, so that, for instance, necessity and possibility are understood in terms of a state of affairs obtaining in all or some world. Some philosophers in the early 1970s looked to generalize these to graded versions so that a proposition may be said to be, say, quite likely, highly likely, and so on. Since then, linguists and computer scientists have developed these ideas, the latter expanding the topic to include those modalities relating to resources and side effects.

A graded modality is an indexed family of modalities with some additional structure on the indices which mirrors the structure of the axioms/proof rules. A graded modality is a graded monad with idempotent components.

For example, the exponential modality of linear logic !! has a graded counterpart in bounded linear logic, where !! is replaced with a family of modalities ! n!_n indexed by the natural numbers (the reuse bound).


A formal framework for type theories with a collection of modalities is in

For discussion in philosophy and linguistics, see

Earlier work in philosophy includes