is called the oriented cartographic group. Specifically, this terminology comes from Grothendieck‘s Esquisse d'un programme, and is motivated by the fact that transitivepermutation representations (or equivalently, conjugacy classes of transitive subgroups) of $\mathcal{C}_2^+$ can be identified with topological maps on connected, oriented surfaces without boundary, while more generally, transitive permutation representations of $\mathcal{C}_2$ can be identified with maps on connected surfaces which may or may not be orientable or have a boundary.

Higher dimensions

The $n$-dimensional analogue of the cartographic group is

Christine Voisin? and Jean Malgoire?. Cartes cellulaires, Cahiers Mathématiques, 12, Montpellier, 1977. (sudoc)

Gareth A. Jones and David Singerman. Theory of Maps on Orientable Surfaces. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 37:273-307, 1978. (doi)

Robin P. Bryant and David Singerman. Foundation of the Theory of Maps on Surfaces With Boundary. Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, 2(36):17-41, 1985. (doi)

Gareth Jones and David Singerman. Maps, hypermaps, and triangle groups. In The Grothendieck Theory of Dessins d’Enfants, L. Schneps (ed.), London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series 200, Cambridge University Press, 1994. (doi)

See also the Wikipedia page on generalized maps, which correspond to permutation representations of $\mathcal{C}_n$.