geometry, complex numbers, complex line
$dim = 1$: Riemann surface, super Riemann surface
synthetic differential geometry
Introductions
from point-set topology to differentiable manifolds
geometry of physics: coordinate systems, smooth spaces, manifolds, smooth homotopy types, supergeometry
Differentials
Tangency
The magic algebraic facts
Theorems
Axiomatics
(shape modality $\dashv$ flat modality $\dashv$ sharp modality)
$(\esh \dashv \flat \dashv \sharp )$
dR-shape modality$\dashv$ dR-flat modality
$\esh_{dR} \dashv \flat_{dR}$
(reduction modality $\dashv$ infinitesimal shape modality $\dashv$ infinitesimal flat modality)
$(\Re \dashv \Im \dashv \&)$
fermionic modality$\dashv$ bosonic modality $\dashv$ rheonomy modality
$(\rightrightarrows \dashv \rightsquigarrow \dashv Rh)$
Models
Models for Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis
smooth algebra ($C^\infty$-ring)
differential equations, variational calculus
Euler-Lagrange equation, de Donder-Weyl formalism?,
Chern-Weil theory, ∞-Chern-Weil theory
Cartan geometry (super, higher)
manifolds and cobordisms
cobordism theory, Introduction
A Riemann surface is a $1$-dimensional algebro-geometric object with good properties. The name ‘surface’ comes from the classical case, which is $1$-dimensional over the complex numbers and therefore $2$-dimensional over the real numbers.
There are several distinct meaning of what is a Riemann surface, and it can be considered in several generalities.
Classically, a Riemann surface is a connected complex-$1$-dimensional complex manifold, in the strictest sense of ‘manifold’. In other words, it’s a Hausdorff second countable space $M$ which is locally homeomorphic to the complex plane $\mathbb{C}$ via charts (i.e., homeomorphisms) $\phi_i:U_i \to V_i$ for $U_i \subset M, V_i \subset \mathbb{C}$ open and such that $\phi_j \circ \phi_i^{-1}: V_i \cap V_j \to V_i \cap V_j$ is holomorphic.
There are generalizations e.g. over local fields in rigid analytic geometry.
Evidently an open subspace of a Riemann surface is a Riemann surface. In particular, an open subset of $\mathbb{C}$ is a Riemann surface in a natural manner.
The Riemann sphere $P^1(\mathbb{C}) := \mathbb{C} \cup \{ \infty \}$ or $S^2$ is a Riemann surface with the open sets $U_1 = \mathbb{C}, U_2 = \mathbb{C} - \{0\} \cup \{\infty\}$ and the charts
The transition map is $\frac{1}{z}$ and thus holomorphic on $U_1 \cap U_2 = \mathbb{C}^*$.
An important example comes from analytic continuation, which we will briefly sketch below. A function element is a pair $(f,V)$ where $f: V \to \mathbb{C}$ is holomorphic and $V \subset \mathbb{C}$ is an open disk. Two function elements $(f,V), (g,W)$ are said to be direct analytic continuations of each other if $V \cap W \neq \emptyset$ and $f \equiv g$ on $V \cap W$. By piecing together direct analytic continuations on a curve, we can talk about the analytic continuation of a function element along a curve (which may or may not exist, but if it does, it is unique).
Starting with a given function element $\gamma = (f,V)$, we can consider the totality $X$ of all equivalence classes of function elements that can be obtained by continuing $\gamma$ along curves in $\mathbb{C}$. Then $X$ is actually a Riemann surface.
Indeed, we must first put a topology on $X$. If $(g,W) \in X$ with $W=D_r(w_0)$ centered at $w_0$, then let a neighborhood of $g$ be given by all function elements $(g_w, W')$ for $w \in W, W' \subset W$; these form a basis for a suitable topology on $X$. Then the coordinate projections $(g,W) \to w_0$ form appropriate local coordinates. In fact, there is a globally defined map $X \to \mathbb{C}$, whose image in general will be a proper subset of $\mathbb{C}$.
Since we have local coordinates, we can define a map $f: X \to Y$ of Riemann surfaces to be holomorphic or regular if it is so in local coordinates. In particular, we can define a holomorphic complex function as a holomorphic map $f: X \to \mathbb{C}$; for meromorphicity, this becomes $f: X \to S^2$.
Many of the usual theorems of elementary complex analysis (that is to say, the local ones) transfer immediately to the case of Riemann surfaces. For instance, we can locally get a Laurent expansion, etc.
Let $f: X \to Y$ be a regular map. If $X$ is compact and $f$ is nonconstant, then $f$ is surjective and $Y$ compact.
To see this, note that $f(X)$ is compact, and an open subset by the open mapping theorem?, so the result follows by connectedness of $Y$.
Since a Riemann surface $X$ is a $2$-dimensional smooth manifold in the usual (real) sense, it is possible to do the usual exterior calculus. We could consider a 1-form to be a section of the (usual) cotangent bundle $T^*(X)$, but it is more natural to take the complexified cotangent bundle $\mathbb{C} \otimes_{\mathbb{R}} T^*(X)$, which we will in the future just abbreviate $T^*(X)$; this should not be confusing since we will only do this when we talk about complex manifolds. Sections of this bundle will be called (complex-valued) 1-forms. Similarly, we do the same for 2-forms.
If $z = x + i y$ is a local coordinate on $X$, defined say on $U \subset X$, define the (complex) differentials
These form a basis for the complexified cotangent space at each point of $U$. There is also a dual basis
for the complexified tangent space.
We now claim that we can split the tangent space $T(X) = T^{1,0}(X) + T^{0,1}(X)$, where the former consists of multiples of $\frac{\partial}{\partial z}$ and the latter of multiples of $\frac{\partial}{\partial \bar{z}}$; clearly a similar thing is possible for the cotangent space. This is always possible locally, and a holomorphic map preserves the decomposition. One way to see the last claim quickly is that given $g: U \to \mathbb{C}$ for $U \subset \mathbb{C}$ open and $0 \in U$ (just for convenience), we can write
where $A = \frac{\partial g }{\partial z }(0), A' = \frac{\partial g }{\partial \bar{z} }(0)$, which we will often abbreviate as $g_z(0), g_{\bar{z}}(0)$. If $\psi: U' \to U$ is holomorphic and conformal sending $z_0 \in U' \to 0 \in U$, we have
in particular, $\phi$ preserves the decomposition of $T_0(\mathbb{C})$.
Given $f: X \to \mathbb{C}$ smooth, we can consider the projections of the 1-form $df$ onto $T^{1,0}(X)$ and $T^{0,1}(X)$, respectively; these will be called $\partial f, \overline{\partial} f$. Similarly, we define the corresponding operators on 1-forms: to define $\partial \omega$, first project onto $T^{0,1}(M)$ (the reversal is intentional!) and then apply $d$, and vice versa for $\overline{\partial} \omega$.
In particular, if we write in local coordinates $\omega = u d z + v d\bar{z}$, then
and
To see this, we have tacitly observed that $d v = v_z d z + v_{\bar{z}} d\bar{z}$.
The Picard group of a Riemann surface is the group of holomorphic line bundles in it. Introductions include (Bobenko, section 8).
See also at Narasimhan–Seshadri theorem and at moduli space of connections – Flat connections over a torus.
In the theory of Riemann surfaces, there are several important theorems. Here are two:
The Riemann-Roch theorem, which analyzes the vector space of meromorphic functions satisfying certain conditions on zeros and poles;
The uniformization theorem?, which partially classifies Riemann surfaces.
A compact Riemann surface of genus $g \geq 2$ is a homotopy 1-type. The fundamental groupoid is a Fuchsian group.
By the Riemann existence theorem, every connected compact Riemann surface admits the structure of a branched cover of the Riemann sphere. (MO discussion)
number fields (“function fields of curves over F1”) | function fields of curves over finite fields $\mathbb{F}_q$ (arithmetic curves) | Riemann surfaces/complex curves | |
---|---|---|---|
affine and projective line | |||
$\mathbb{Z}$ (integers) | $\mathbb{F}_q[z]$ (polynomials, function algebra on affine line $\mathbb{A}^1_{\mathbb{F}_q}$) | $\mathcal{O}_{\mathbb{C}}$ (holomorphic functions on complex plane) | |
$\mathbb{Q}$ (rational numbers) | $\mathbb{F}_q(z)$ (rational functions) | meromorphic functions on complex plane | |
$p$ (prime number/non-archimedean place) | $x \in \mathbb{F}_p$ | $x \in \mathbb{C}$ | |
$\infty$ (place at infinity) | $\infty$ | ||
$Spec(\mathbb{Z})$ (Spec(Z)) | $\mathbb{A}^1_{\mathbb{F}_q}$ (affine line) | complex plane | |
$Spec(\mathbb{Z}) \cup place_{\infty}$ | $\mathbb{P}_{\mathbb{F}_q}$ (projective line) | Riemann sphere | |
$\partial_p \coloneqq \frac{(-)^p - (-)}{p}$ (Fermat quotient) | $\frac{\partial}{\partial z}$ (coordinate derivation) | “ | |
genus of the rational numbers = 0 | genus of the Riemann sphere = 0 | ||
formal neighbourhoods | |||
$\mathbb{Z}_p$ (p-adic integers) | $\mathbb{F}_q[ [ t -x ] ]$ (power series around $x$) | $\mathbb{C}[ [z-x] ]$ (holomorphic functions on formal disk around $x$) | |
$Spf(\mathbb{Z}_p)\underset{Spec(\mathbb{Z})}{\times} X$ (“$p$-arithmetic jet space” of $X$ at $p$) | formal disks in $X$ | ||
$\mathbb{Q}_p$ (p-adic numbers) | $\mathbb{F}_q((z-x))$ (Laurent series around $x$) | $\mathbb{C}((z-x))$ (holomorphic functions on punctured formal disk around $x$) | |
$\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}} = \underset{p\; place}{\prod^\prime}\mathbb{Q}_p$ (ring of adeles) | $\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{F}_q((t))}$ ( adeles of function field ) | $\underset{x \in \mathbb{C}}{\prod^\prime} \mathbb{C}((z-x))$ (restricted product of holomorphic functions on all punctured formal disks, finitely of which do not extend to the unpunctured disks) | |
$\mathbb{I}_{\mathbb{Q}} = GL_1(\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}})$ (group of ideles) | $\mathbb{I}_{\mathbb{F}_q((t))}$ ( ideles of function field ) | $\underset{x \in \mathbb{C}}{\prod^\prime} GL_1(\mathbb{C}((z-x)))$ | |
theta functions | |||
Jacobi theta function | |||
zeta functions | |||
Riemann zeta function | Goss zeta function | ||
branched covering curves | |||
$K$ a number field ($\mathbb{Q} \hookrightarrow K$ a possibly ramified finite dimensional field extension) | $K$ a function field of an algebraic curve $\Sigma$ over $\mathbb{F}_p$ | $K_\Sigma$ (sheaf of rational functions on complex curve $\Sigma$) | |
$\mathcal{O}_K$ (ring of integers) | $\mathcal{O}_{\Sigma}$ (structure sheaf) | ||
$Spec_{an}(\mathcal{O}_K) \to Spec(\mathbb{Z})$ (spectrum with archimedean places) | $\Sigma$ (arithmetic curve) | $\Sigma \to \mathbb{C}P^1$ (complex curve being branched cover of Riemann sphere) | |
$\frac{(-)^p - \Phi(-)}{p}$ (lift of Frobenius morphism/Lambda-ring structure) | $\frac{\partial}{\partial z}$ | “ | |
genus of a number field | genus of an algebraic curve | genus of a surface | |
formal neighbourhoods | |||
$v$ prime ideal in ring of integers $\mathcal{O}_K$ | $x \in \Sigma$ | $x \in \Sigma$ | |
$K_v$ (formal completion at $v$) | $\mathbb{C}((z_x))$ (function algebra on punctured formal disk around $x$) | ||
$\mathcal{O}_{K_v}$ (ring of integers of formal completion) | $\mathbb{C}[ [ z_x ] ]$ (function algebra on formal disk around $x$) | ||
$\mathbb{A}_K$ (ring of adeles) | $\prod^\prime_{x\in \Sigma} \mathbb{C}((z_x))$ (restricted product of function rings on all punctured formal disks around all points in $\Sigma$) | ||
$\mathcal{O}$ | $\prod_{x\in \Sigma} \mathbb{C}[ [z_x] ]$ (function ring on all formal disks around all points in $\Sigma$) | ||
$\mathbb{I}_K = GL_1(\mathbb{A}_K)$ (group of ideles) | $\prod^\prime_{x\in \Sigma} GL_1(\mathbb{C}((z_x)))$ | ||
Galois theory | |||
Galois group | “ | $\pi_1(\Sigma)$ fundamental group | |
Galois representation | “ | flat connection (“local system”) on $\Sigma$ | |
class field theory | |||
class field theory | “ | geometric class field theory | |
Hilbert reciprocity law | Artin reciprocity law | Weil reciprocity law | |
$GL_1(K)\backslash GL_1(\mathbb{A}_K)$ (idele class group) | “ | ||
$GL_1(K)\backslash GL_1(\mathbb{A}_K)/GL_1(\mathcal{O})$ | “ | $Bun_{GL_1}(\Sigma)$ (moduli stack of line bundles, by Weil uniformization theorem) | |
non-abelian class field theory and automorphy | |||
number field Langlands correspondence | function field Langlands correspondence | geometric Langlands correspondence | |
$GL_n(K) \backslash GL_n(\mathbb{A}_K)//GL_n(\mathcal{O})$ (constant sheaves on this stack form unramified automorphic representations) | “ | $Bun_{GL_n(\mathbb{C})}(\Sigma)$ (moduli stack of bundles on the curve $\Sigma$, by Weil uniformization theorem) | |
Tamagawa-Weil for number fields | Tamagawa-Weil for function fields | ||
theta functions | |||
Hecke theta function | functional determinant line bundle of Dirac operator/chiral Laplace operator on $\Sigma$ | ||
zeta functions | |||
Dedekind zeta function | Weil zeta function | zeta function of a Riemann surface/of the Laplace operator on $\Sigma$ | |
higher dimensional spaces | |||
zeta functions | Hasse-Weil zeta function |
Historical references:
Hermann Weyl, Die Idee der Riemannschen Fläche, 1913 (The concept of a Riemann surface) (on the book, by Peter Schreiber, 2013: web)
Tibor Radó, Über den Begriff der Riemannschen Fläche, Acta Litt. Sci. Szeged, 2 (101-121), 10 (pdf, pdf)
(proving the triangulation theorem)
Lecture notes:
Alexander Bobenko, Compact Riemann Surfaces lecture notes (pdf)
Eberhard Freitag, Riemann surfaces – Sheaf theory, Riemann Surfaces, Automorphic forms, 2013 (pdf)
Joachim Wehler, Riemann surfaces 2020 (pdf)